2) Oil selection
Lubricants include lubricating oils, gear oils, and greases. The lubricating oils (also known as engine oils) used on internal combustion engines can be classified into gasoline engine oils, diesel engine oils, etc. according to applications. Viscosity classification method (SAE-USA Automobile Engineers Society) and quality classification method (API-USA Petroleum Institute) are commonly used abroad.
According to SAE viscosity, oil can be divided into:
6 winter oils, 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W and 25W (W-winter).
The smaller the number before W, the lower the viscosity, the better the cold flowability and the lower the applicable low temperature.
4 kinds of summer oil: 20, 30, 40, 50, the greater the number, the greater the viscosity, the higher the applicable temperature.
3 16 kinds of winter and summer common oil, 5W/2 0, 5W/30, 5W/40, 5W/5 0, 10W/20, 10W/30, 10W/40, 10W/50, 15W/20, 15W/30, 15W /40, 15W/50, 20W/20, 20W/30, 20W/40, 20W/50. The smaller the number representing the winter use portion and the larger the number representing the summer use, the better the viscosity characteristics and the wider the applicable temperature range. According to the API quality classification method, oil can be classified into four categories: CA, CB, CC, and CD. CA and CB are applicable to non-supercharged diesel engines, while CC and CD are applicable to turbocharged diesel engines. Imported motor oil grade identification: SAE10WSD for winter oil with viscosity classification SAE10W and API quality classification SD; SAE30SD for summer oil with viscosity classification SAE30 and API quality classification SD; SAE10W/30SD for viscosity classification SAE10W meets SAE30 summer and summer API quality classification as SD winter common gasoline engine oil. In China's GB5323-88 oil standard, diesel engine oil is classified into CA, CB, CC, and CD.
Some parts of the diesel engine (such as water pump bearings, distributors, etc.) are lubricated with grease. Grease (commonly known as butter) A plastic lubricant consisting of one (or more) thickeners and one (or more) lubricating fluids, plus various additives as required. Grease is actually a thickened lubricating oil. It is a semi-solid paste at room temperature. The use of a wide range of greases with a rated output is soap-based grease. Common soap-based greases include calcium, sodium, sulfhydryl, calcium and sodium. One of the important basis for the selection of grease is the penetration degree, and the penetration degree indicates the thickening degree of the grease. The smaller the penetration, the thicker the grease, the less likely to enter and fill the friction surface.
3) Selection of Coolant
1 Use clean soft water. The cooling water of diesel engines is clean soft water such as rainwater, snow water and so on. Well water, spring water, river water and seawater are hard water. Hard water tends to form scales, block pipes, and make it difficult to dissipate heat from high-temperature parts, causing diesel engines to overheat. Therefore, hard water needs to be softened before it can be used. Commonly used softeners are sodium bicarbonate (soda ash) and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and 0.5 to 1.5 g of sodium bicarbonate or 0.5 to 0.8 g of sodium hydroxide per liter of water can soften hard water.
2 Antifreeze at low temperature In the cold season, when the diesel engine is used for a long time after it is used up, in order to prevent the water in the cooling system from freezing, the cylinder, cylinder head or water tank should be broken, and the water in the entire cooling system should be put. net. In order to reduce the freezing point of the cooling water and reduce the water discharge work, an antifreeze with a low freezing point is sometimes used as a cooling medium in the cooling system.